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2018, 5(1)
HighLights More»   
· Analysis on Photon-number-splitting Attack Against Decoy-state Quantum Key Distribution Schemes——LI H X, CHI Y G, HAN Y, YAN B, WANG W
· Digital Certificate Scheme Based on Lattice Signature Algorithm——LI Z C, LIANG L, SUN Y F
· Identity-based Broadcast Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme from LWE——FENG H W, LIU J W, WU Q H
· Key Update and Trusted Positioning System Based on Blockchain——LI D W, LIU J W, GUANG Z Y, QIN Y Y, WU Q H
· Constructions of Weakly Semi-bent Orthogonal Sequences Sets——XIA T T, SUN Y J, XIE C L
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  Journal of Cryptologic Research--2018, 5 (1)   Published: 23 February 2018
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Articles
Analysis on Photon-number-splitting Attack Against Decoy-state Quantum Key Distribution Schemes Hot!
LI H X, CHI Y G, HAN Y, YAN B, WANG W
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 1-12. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000213
Full Text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF (4140 KB)  ( 223 )
Show Abstract ( 178 )

The fast development of quantum secure communication technology shows great application potentiality of quantum cryptography in communications. Quantum cryptography takes advantage of quantum's physical property to ensure unconditional security. However, in practical communication systems, the imperfection of photon sources and other devices brings safety loopholes. Photon-number-splitting (PNS) attack can obtain the secret key by taking advantage of imperfect photon sources of some quantum key distribution systems. This paper first reviews the current development and basic principle of PNS attack. Then, it presents an analysis on the key technology of an improved PNS attack. Based on the above analysis, the traditional PNS attack is improved by presenting a new attack, by which an eavesdropper can legally control the count rate of various pulse intensities at the receiving end so that it remains unchanged. Meanwhile, considering the practicability of the attack, photon pulses intensities are divided into several security intervals, each interval computes a beam splitter efficiency to insure receiver's count to be unchanged, so that the attack cannot be detected. Finally, with the help of MATLAB, the fitting function of beam splitter and light intensity is computed, and through numerical simulation and number optimization, this paper shows the feasibility of the proposed attack.

Digital Certificate Scheme Based on Lattice Signature Algorithm Hot!
LI Z C, LIANG L, SUN Y F
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 13-20. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000214
Full Text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF (1229 KB)  ( 201 )
Show Abstract ( 167 )

With the arrival of the global information era, communication networks are becoming more and more popular in daily life and work. The issue of network security has become a focus of attention. Digital certificates are a good solution to the problem of network identity authentication. It proves legitimacy of user identity by binding user identity and public key together through a third party authority. The techniques of authentication based on digital certificates provide insurance for the security of e-government and e-commerce. Therefore, the research of digital certificate is of great significance. Most of the existing signature algorithms used in digital certificate systems are based on the hard problem of large number factorization or discrete logarithm. However, with the rapid development of quantum computers, those signature algorithms are facing a huge security threat. To solve this problem, this study proposes a digital certificate scheme based on lattice theory. In the scheme, the signature algorithm used by the trusted certificate authority is based on lattice theory, and its security is based on small integer solution problem. It is proved that the design of certificate based on this algorithm cannot be forged. Compared with the traditional certificate schemes such as RSA and ECDSA, this scheme not only can resist the quantum attack, but also has higher efficiency in the same security bits. Compared with the previous lattice signature schemes, the size of key and that of signature values are both smaller.

Identity-based Broadcast Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme from LWE Hot!
FENG H W, LIU J W, WU Q H
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 21-34. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000215
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Show Abstract ( 107 )

Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) is an emerging public key encryption paradigm, which enables a third party to execute operations on ciphertexts without knowing the decryption key. It can serve as a powerful cryptographic tool for data privacy protection in cloud computing environment, and has significant applications. However, in a complex network environment, a message may be received by multiple receivers. It has not been well solved by the traditional FHE schemes as how to share a computable ciphertext with an arbitrarily chosen set of receivers. Inspired by identity-based broadcast encryption, we introduce a novel cryptography primitive called identity-based broadcast fully homomorphic encryption (IBBFHE), and present a concrete scheme based on LWE assumption to solve the problem mentioned above. The data encrypted under IBBFHE schemes can still be homomorphic computed by third parties who do not have decryption abilities, and it can only be decrypted by the authorized receivers in a specific group. Thus, data secure sharing can be made possible in cloud computing environment. The IND-smCIS-CPA security of the proposed scheme under LWE assumption is proved. Furthermore, LWE problem is believed to be unsolvable by quantum computers, thus the proposed scheme also possesses this property.

Key Update and Trusted Positioning System Based on Blockchain Hot!
LI D W, LIU J W, GUANG Z Y, QIN Y Y, WU Q H
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 35-42. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000216
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Show Abstract ( 229 )

With the development Internet of Things (IoT), the number of intelligent devices is increasing rapidly. The ad hoc network mode of wireless intelligent devices has dynamic topology and decentralized distribution and does not have a fixed infrastructure. However, these features bring many problems to the security of communication and positioning. Firstly, the combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption schemes is applied to achieve secure communications between IoT devices, while once a private key is lost or leaked, it is hard to synchronize the latest keys in the whole ad hoc network. Secondly, complicated interaction and computation are usually needed for key agreement among devices in ad hoc networks. Thirdly, under some circumstances, it can be a great challenge for ad hoc intelligent devices to receive signal from the trusted third party which is also required to be always online, but the existing ad hoc positioning system cannot remain secure when lacking of trusted third party like base station. Finally, the existing positioning algorithm cannot protect positioning signal untampered, and it is difficult to ensure the accuracy of the positioning displayed by each mobile device in the ad hoc network. In view of the above problems, we propose this system by using blockchains established between wireless IoT devices as the trusted infrastructure to record the key update chain corresponding to the user identity and facilitate the session key agreement among multiple users. Based on the consensus mechanism, the system enables trusted mutual positioning among IoT devices when there is no or weak positioning signal, and it protects the authenticity of positioning information sent or received by devices. The system can be built by the existing secure cryptographic algorithms, enabling secure and efficient key updates and trusted positioning, and it is adapted for use in actual devices in secure IoT systems.

Constructions of Weakly Semi-bent Orthogonal Sequences Sets Hot!
XIA T T, SUN Y J, XIE C L
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 43-54. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000217
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Show Abstract ( 88 )

Spread-spectrum technique has been widely applied both in military and in civilian communications. The design of the codewords in the spread-spectrum communication systems is one of the most concerned topics in sequence design. The correlation value of the spread-spectrum sequences determines the ability of the anti-interference of the system. Thus the sequences should have desirable cross-correlation properties. In order to meet the communication demand for increasingly dense population, the sequences also need to ensure a sufficient number of users in each cell. In this paper, the definition of weakly semi-bent Boolean functions and weakly semi-bent sequences are presented. A class of weakly semi-bent orthogonal sequences has been constructed by using Maiorana-McFarland cryptographic Boolean function construction technique. Weakly semi-bent orthogonal sequences can be assigned to regular tessellation of hexagonal cells, the number of users per cell is larger than that by the currently best known method.  Two optimization schemes of the weakly semi-bent sequence sets are designed. The first optimization scheme is to increase the number of individual cellular users as the main target, and in some cases it is twice as large as the current optimal result. In the second optimization scheme, the semi-bent orthogonal sequences sets are constructed based on the weakly semi-bent orthogonal sequences sets, making the interference between non-adjacent cells smaller than weakly semi-bent orthogonal sequences sets without reducing the number of users in each cell. Weakly semi-bent orthogonal sequences can be assigned to regular tessellation of hexagonal cells, which is typical for certain code division multiple access (CDMA) systems, it can achieve a compromise between the number of users and the anti-interference performance.

Pairing-free Certificate-based Multi-domain Conditional Proxy Re-encryption Scheme Hot!
XU J R, CHEN K F, SHEN Z H, XU X D
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 55-67. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000218
Full Text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF (887 KB)  ( 110 )
Show Abstract ( 85 )

The existing certificate-based conditional proxy re-encryption (CB-CPRE) schemes effectively support the data confidentiality in the cloud environment, and have solved the heavy certificate management problem and the key escrow problem. However, the existing certificate-based conditional proxy re-encryption schemes still have some drawbacks in applications, considering when the delegator and the delegatee are in a same domain (intra-domain). In the new cloud environment, users from the same domain or different domains need to share data and different service providers need to cooperate with each other to provide cloud services for users. Thus, we propose the definition and security model of certificated-based multi-domain conditional proxy re-encryption (CB-MD-CPRE) by combining the concept of multi-domain and the existing schemes. Then users in the inter-domain can access each other's data, hence the above problem can be solved effetively. Integrating with the elliptic curve group, a pairing-free certificated-based multi-domain conditional proxy re-encryption scheme is proposed and is proved to be indistinguishable against adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack in the random oracle model. Finally, compared with other related schemes, the proposed scheme has obvious advantages in performance and computational complexity, where the delegator can flexibly authorize the decryption rights based on a condition. The proposed scheme allows users from the same domain or different domains to share data, and is more suitable for cloud computing applications.

Preface on Special Topics
Preface Hot!
HU L
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 68-69.
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Show Abstract ( 159 )
Reviews in Special Topics
Research Advances on Authenticated Encryption Algorithms#br# Hot!
WU W L
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 70-82. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000220
Full Text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF (331 KB)  ( 390 )
Show Abstract ( 242 )

Authenticated encryption algorithms can protect data confidentiality, integrity, and data source authentication at the same time. It has a wide range of applications in real life. With the CAESAR competition, authenticated encryption algorithms have been a hot research topic in cryptography, many new authenticated encryption algorithms are proposed, a lot of analysis results are presented, but the progress is not smooth. From the existing results it can be seen that, the description of security objectives, or the design principles, or the basic strategy of analysis and evaluation, are all in a variety of situations. This paper reviews the development history and the security model of authenticated encryption algorithms. Then, based on the CAESAR candidate algorithms, this paper classifies and summarizes the design principles of the authenticated encryption algorithms, discusses the advantages and weakness of various authenticated encryption algorithms, reviews their security with the latest research results. Finally, we try to analyze the development trend of authenticated encryption algorithms, and point out some problems in this direction.

Articles in Special Topics
Research on Cryptanalysis on Authenticated Cipher FASER Hot!
FENG X T, ZHANG F
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 83-93. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000221
Full Text: HTML (1 KB)  PDF (530 KB)  ( 122 )
Show Abstract ( 117 )

CAESAR is a worldwide cryptography competition launched by Japan in 2013, aiming at collecting symmetrical encryption algorithms with authentication. FASER is a family of authenticated ciphers submitted to the CAESAR competition, which contains two ciphers: FASER128 and FASER256. Both the two ciphers are based on stream cipher cryptosystem, they generate pseudo-random key streams according to the initial keys and initial random vectors as the inputs. The pseudo-random stream used in the encryption has the same length as that of plaintext stream, and the ciphertext stream is obtained by the XOR operation of the pseudo-random stream and the plaintext stream. This study reveals that the bits in pseudo-random word generated by any time in FASER are strongly correlated. With this correlation property, we induce an effective algebraic attack on FASER128 and FASER256. We first present a state recovery attack on the encryption of FASER128 with time complexity of about 229 operations and data complexity of about 64 key words. The attack can be executed in an ordinary personal computer, and the algorithm costs only a few minutes to recover the secret state of FASER128. Moreover, a key recovery attack is deduced with time complexity of about 236 operations, which can be done easily by parallel computing in multi-core PCs. For instance, in a 32-core computer, the secret key can be recovered in a few minutes. The result shows that FASER128 is very insecure. It is also shown that our attack can be easily applied to FASER256 and a practical state recovery attack on FASER256 is presented, and the time complexity is no more than 248.  Our work caused FASER to be withdrawn in 2014.

Security Analysis of Authentication Mechanism in Grain-128a Hot!
WANG P, ZHENG K Y
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (1): 94-100. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000222
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Show Abstract ( 126 )

Grain-128a is a stream-cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme, using a universal hash function as the core component in its authentication part. Previous studies focus on the weakness of stream cipher, while this work analyzes the security of Grain-128a through the weak key analysis of the universal hash function, assuming that the stream cipher is perfect. The universal hash function is a simple affine function, resulting in weak key sets in Grain-128a. An attacker can effectively detect whether or not the key belongs to this set, and if so, the attacker can perform forgery attack with a successful probability of 1. By using key recovery attacks based on the weak key analysis, it is shown that it is possible to recover the l+31 bits of the key with a successful probability of 1 with 1 encryption query and no more than 232+l-1 decryption queries, if the bit-length of the message is 1. Furthermore, one can get almost all of the keystreams generated by the stream cipher, and then can do arbitrary forgery attacks, that is, for arbitrary message less than 1 bits , it is possible to generate its ciphertext and the corresponding massage authentication code. At the end of this paper, an analysis of the reason behind the attacks and the corresponding precautions are presented.

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