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2017, 4(6)
HighLights More»   
· Biclique Cryptanalysis of Lightweight Block Cipher PRINCE——YUAN Z, PENG Z
· Cube Attack on Round-reduced Fruit——SUN Y S
· Fair Secret Sharing Scheme with Unconditional Security—— ZHANG B H, XIE X J, TANG Y S
· Distinguish Attack on Round-reduced SHA3-512 Based on Impossible Differential——DING Y L, LI L, JIA K T
· Preface on Homomorphic Encrpytion——CHEN K F, JIANG L Z
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  Journal of Cryptologic Research--2017, 4 (6)   Published: 28 December 2017
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Biclique Cryptanalysis of Lightweight Block Cipher PRINCE Hot!
YUAN Z, PENG Z
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 517-527.
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PRINCE is an involutive lightweight block cipher proposed by Rechberger et al. at ASIACRYPT 2012 and is widely used in many resource constrained devices. The block length of PRINCE is 64 bits and key length is 128 bits. PRINCE is based on the so-called FX construction, where one part of the key is used for the core cipher PRINCEcore, and the remaining part of the key is used for whitenings before and after the core. PRINCEcore is also a block cipher which contains the major encryption process. Biclique cryptanalysis is a new cryptanalysis of block ciphers, which caused wide attention by cryptanalysts. Abed et al. gave the security evaluations of PRINCEcore against Biclique attack with computational complexity of 262.72 encryptions and data complexity of 240 chosen ciphertexts. Inspired from their work, this paper gives two kinds of Biclique attacks on PRINCEcore. After the introduction of balanced Biclique construction and star-based Biclique construction, a general flow of Biclique attack is given, and the construction of PRINCE is introduced. Then, Abed's method is improved and a balanced Biclique on the initial round of PRINCEcore is constructed with computation complexity of 262.69 encryptions and data complexity of 232 chosen plaintexts, which are better than the previous results. Finally, a star-based Biclique on PRINCEcore is constructed. The computational complexity of the star-based Biclique attack against PRINCEcore is 263 encryptions and a single plaintext-ciphertext pair. This is the optimal data complexity among the existing results of full round attack on PRINCEcore.

Cube Attack on Round-reduced Fruit Hot!
SUN Y S
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 528-536. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000204
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Show Abstract ( 77 )

The cube attack is an algebraic cryptanalysis method introduced by Dinur and Shamir at EUROCRYPT 2009, it aims to extract linear relations about secret variables from the targeted primitives, and the difficulty is to find a good cube. Ultra-lightweight stream ciphers have the advantages of high speed, low power consumption, easy to implement and so on. The market demand for ultra-lightweight stream ciphers is very large, which makes the ultra-lightweight stream ciphers to be more attractive. In 2015, Armknetcht et al. proposed a new design direction for lightweight stream ciphers, with repeated use of initial key bits in each round of key stream bit generation. Based on this idea, they proposed a new ultra-lightweight stream cipher named Sprout, with the internal state size and the key size are both 80 bits. An ultra-lightweight stream cipher Fruit was designed by  Ghafari et al. in 2016 to reduce the internal state without harming its security against time-memory-data tradeoff attack. This work applies the cube attack to round-reduced Fruit. We consider a few new ideas for obtaining good cubes. The cube attack on round-reduced Fruit (83 rounds, up to 86 rounds) can recover 17 bits of keys out of the 80-bit key, which is 217 times faster than exhaustive key search. The linear polynomial is found to be only related to the last 17 bits of the key, no linear representation is found in the first 63 bits of the key. This result is due to the round key function of the Fruit algorithm, it is a good reference for the analysis of the round key function.

Fair Secret Sharing Scheme with Unconditional Security Hot!
ZHANG B H, XIE X J, TANG Y S
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 537-544. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000205
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Secret sharing scheme is an important branch of modern cryptography. It is also an important tool for information security and data privacy, and has been widely used in digital signature, secure multiparty computation, error-correcting codes,  politics, economy, military and diplomacy. In many existing secret sharing schemes, the construction is based on Shamir's method. In Shamir's (t,n) threshold scheme, the secret is shared among n participants, such that t or more participants can cooperate to recover the secret, and t-1 or fewer participants cannot. However, in the secret recovery phase of Shamir's scheme, if a dishonest participant presents a fake share and other participants provide the true shares, although verification algorithm can be used to check the validity of shares, it cannot prevent the adversary from obtaining the true secret while the honest participants recover a false secret, so it is not fair for the honest participants. This paper proposes a fair threshold secret sharing scheme and shows its fairness and security against non-cooperative attack with synchronization, non-cooperative attack with asynchronization, cooperative attack with synchronization and cooperative attack with asynchronization. There is no cryptographic assumption, so it is unconditionally secure, which makes this scheme more efficient and useful in practical applications.

Distinguish Attack on Round-reduced SHA3-512 Based on Impossible Differential Hot!
DING Y L, LI L, JIA K T
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 545-557. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000206
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Keccak is a family of Hash functions with sponge construction, which was designed by Bertoni et al., and selected as the winner of the SHA3 competition. The security analysis of Keccak can be divided into three parts, which are the analyses of Keccak in the context of hashing, the analyses on Keccak-MAC and authenticated encryption schemes, and the distinguish attacks on Keccak-f permutations. This paper studies the impossible differential property of Keccak, and presents a distinguish attack based on it. It is found that the XOR of two bits in a column remains unchanged after the linear operation in the round function. Based on this property, a 4-round impossible differential characteristic of Keccak function can be constructed. Considering that the sizes of the message and the digest are different in each version and will affect the choice of the input and output differentials, an impossible differential characteristic is selected that conforms to SHA3-512. Then we develop a property of the non-linear operation , which shows that when the input pairs satisfy some constraints, the output difference and the input difference should be equal. Finally, Based on the characteristic and the property, an impossible differential distinguish attack on 4-round SHA3-512 is performed. The success rate of this attack is 99%, where the data complexity is 28.21 messages and the corresponding time complexity is 28.21. We did some experiments to verify the above theoretical results by taking SHA-512 as the random function, and it shows that the complexity of our attack is better than other methods in the same number of rounds.

Preface on Homomorphic Encrpytion Hot!
CHEN K F, JIANG L Z
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 558-560. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000207
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Overview on Fully Homomorphic Encryption Hot!
LI Z P, MA C G, ZHOU H S
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 561-578. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000208
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With the popularization of cloud computing model, the outsourcing of data storage and computing services has become an inevitable trend, and the issues of data security and privacy protection have attracted more and more attention from the industry and academia. Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) cryptosystems, which can complete the processing tasks on ciphertexts without leakage of sensitive information, have the inherent characteristics of protecting users' data security and privacy. Moreover, since the lattice cipher has the property of resisting quantum attack and homomorphism operation, it makes the study of lattice-based FHE under the spotlight. Currently, the research of fully homomorphic encryption mainly focuses on two aspects: improving the design and performance of the schemes, and exploring the potential applications. This paper overviews the following: the three phases of fully homomorphic encryptions, lattice-based design of homomorphic encryption systems, and the problems which the fully homomorphic encryptions are facing with. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the important research results in this field since the first fully homomorphic encryption scheme proposed by Gentry (at STOC 2009).

Simple Analysis on Noiseless Fully Homomorphic Encryptions Hot!
WANG L C,LI J
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 579-595. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000209
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Fully homomorphic encryption is undoubtedly one of the forefront of the hot topics in the current international cryptographic community. Since Gentry published the first FHE scheme, many other FHE schemes have been proposed. Some are new implementations based on different platforms, and some are focused on efficiency improvements. Throughout those FHE schemes, it is not difficult to find that most are based on the ``noise'' technology. On one hand, noise plays a very important role in ensuring the hardness of the underlying intractability assumptions of the corresponding schemes. On the other hand, the suppression of the noise accumulation is often one of the core technics of the related constructions. Noise seems to be a double-edge and inevitable sword in building FHEs: the introduction of noise and the suppression of noise accumulation are also inherent barriers to the improvement of the performance. One important problem is the existence and construction of noiseless FHE schemes. Although many people think that noiseless FHEs are insecure, the exploration of the noiseless FHEs is always a significant topic before the negative conclusions of such proofs are strictly demonstrated. In fact, several noiseless FHEs have already been proposed, but none can be proved strictly secure and feasible in the framework of provable security. This survey mainly discusses the design idea and the security of known noiseless FHEs.
Application of (Fully) Homomorphic Encryption for Encrypted Computing Models Hot!
JIANG L Z, XU C X, WANG X F, CHEN K F, WANG B C.
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 596-610. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000210
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Show Abstract ( 367 )

With the rapid development of cloud computing and big data, data security, user privacy protection and commercial use of data in the cloud are challenging problems for academia and industry. How to ensure the effective use of data on the basis of ensuring data confidentiality and user privacy is an important problem. (Fully) homomorphic encryption provides one of the effective solutions to this problem. First of all, this paper introduces the relationship and balance among the data storage security, user privacy protection and business utilization of data in the cloud. Then, this paper presents efficiency comparison and analysis of the Gentry primitive scheme based on ideal lattice, BGV scheme and FV scheme from RLWE. Based on the comparison and analysis, this paper gives a specific parameter setting, a detailed analysis of the key generation time, decryption time and homomorphic evaluation time on encrypted data. It is found that the somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme based on RLWE provides a more efficient solution for many computational models and algorithms concerning practical problems. Finally, two cases based on BGV scheme and efficiency analysis are given. Efficiency analysis and experimental results show that the somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme from RLWE is the most effective solution for data privacy, user privacy protection and commercial utilization of data.

Efficient Homomorphic Encryption and Its Application Hot!
YANG H M, JIN B L, CHEN C, WU X Y
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 611-619. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000211
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With the development of cloud computing and data mining, user's data privacy becomes more and more valuable. Privacy preserved computation turns out to be a good subject. Homomorphic encryption schemes allow the calculation of ciphertext without secret key. The calculations can be completed without any privacy leaking in theory. Many homomorphic encryption schemes have been proposed based on Gentry's work, and most of them cannot be used practically because of their low performance. Zhou proposed a somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme named VHE, which was an integral extension of PVW proposed by Brakerski. As a result, VHE has higher ability than PVW. However its applications are limited because there are some security problems with VHE. This paper introduces an enhanced version of VHE, which possesses a higher performance and better security. Some security analysis on it is given trying to clarify its security limits. A simple demo is also given to test its performance in homomorphic calculation. It shows to have a much higher performance than the original VHE scheme, and require much less memory when perform encryptions. This makes it possible to build applications based on VHE for low performance machines.

Parallel FHEW Based on Multi-core CPU Hot!
YANG X Y, DING Y T, ZHOU T P
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (6): 620-626. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000212
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Fully homomorphic encryption algorithm is developing rapidly, but it still can not be applied because of its inefficiency. In order to speed up the operation speed of the full homomorphic encryption algorithm FHEW, the parallel algorithm of FHEW scheme is proposed to accelerate the speed of fully homomorphic encryption. This study finds the characteristics that FHEW involves a large number of independent matrix and vector operations, and multi-core CPU fits for the calculation of mass of independent date. First of all, by analyzing and comparing the characteristics and running time of the four main processes of FHEW algorithm, we find that most time-consuming processes in the algorithm are the key generation process and the homomorphism NAND gate (including the bootstrap process), and the two processes involve a large number of independent matrix and vector operations. Secondly, considering that there are a large number of discrete Fourier transform and inverse transform in the algorithm, these transform and inverse transform consume a large amount of time and memory resources. In this study, most of the discrete Fourier transform and inverse transform function are calculated in parallel, which improves discrete Fourier transform function speed, to further improve the program efficiency. Finally, the original algorithm and parallel algorithm are run 18 times respectively to get the average running time. Experimental results show that, the running time of the key generation algorithm is reduced from 13,029 ms to 2434 ms and the efficiency is improved by 4.35 times. The running time of a homomorphism and NAND gate operation is reduced from 298.5 ms to 81 ms, which improves the efficiency 2.68 times.

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