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2018, 5(5)
HighLights More»   
· Preface of Special Issue on Blockchain Technology——FENG D G,OUYANG Y G
· Survey on Security of Blockchain——SI X M, XU M X, YUAN C
· Research on Mining Attacks in Bitcoin——HAN J, ZOU J, JIANG H, XU Q L
· Research Progress on Theory of Blockchains——SHAN J Y, GAO S
· Research on Fault-correcting Blockchain Technology——LI P L, XU H X, MA T J, MU Y H
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  Journal of Cryptologic Research--2018, 5 (5)   Published: 17 October 2018
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Preface on Special Topics
Preface of Special Issue on Blockchain Technology Hot!
FENG D G,OUYANG Y G
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 455-457. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000255
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        Blockchain is a kind of de-trusted distributed computing paradigm, sequentially connects data blocks in chronological order that constitutes a kind of chained data structure, and uses cryptographic techniques to realize consistent storage, unmanipulability, and non-repudiation of data. As a new type of computing paradigm and cooperating mode whose trust is built with lower cost in untrusted competitive environment, blockchain has been changing application scenarios and operating rules in many industries, and it is highly valued in the areas of digital currency, financial service, Internet of Things, intelligent manufacturing, medical health, credit reporting, and so on. In fact, the management, circulation, and sharing of any high-valued data can use blockchains.
        Cryptographic technique is the core of blockchains. It concerns not only the security and efficiency, but also the concrete applications of blockchains. Cryptographic techniques play specifically important role in guaranteeing the security and privacy, two crucial factors for evaluating blockchains. For example, Hash functions and digital signatures assure the unmanipulability and unforgeability of blockchains; ring signatures, homomorphic encryption, zero-knowledge proofs, etc. protect the users' privacy in different extent. While cryptographic techniques guarantee the security of blockchain applications, the research on blockchain in turn promotes the development of many cryptography branches, e.g., secure multi-party computation, key protection and management, post-quantum cryptography, and so on.
        To promote the development and research of blockchain, to guarantee the security of the applications of blockchains, and to further facilitate the research of cryptographic theory and applications, Journal of Cryptologic Research organized the special issue on ''Blockchain Technology'' by calling and inviting for papers widely, and 11 papers are selected into this special issue after the peer review process.
        Three review articles are included in this special issue. ''Survey on Security of Blockchain'' by Si Xue-Ming et al. describes the architecture of the blockchain technology. It lays out the security issues on different hierarchies, including the various risks faced by the blockchain technology and different types of attacks. The security of Bitcoin has attracted more attention, and many attacks have been proposed. ''Research on Mining Attacks in Bitcoin'' by Han Jian et al. elaborates the common attacks on Bitcoin mining, analyzes the basic approach, threats and damages of the attacks, and describes some known countermeasures. Research of blockchain theory is the foundation of sound development of blockchains. The paper entitled ''Research Progress on Theory of Blockchains'' by Shan Jin-Yong et al. firstly introduces the operating mechanism, basic characteristics, key technologies, and technical challenges of blockchains. Then, it gives the formal definition of blockchains, summarizes the research hotspots, related cryptographic techniques, security analysis, consensus mechanism, privacy protection, scalability, etc. This paper also emphases on the importance of cryptographic techniques in blockchains, points out the potential application values of special digital signatures, zero-knowledge proofs, homomorphic cryptography, and secure multi-party computation in blockchains, and describes a series of technical bottlenecks faced by blockchains such as low throughput, high latency, high energy consumption, etc.
        There are 4 research articles on blockchain technology. Blockchain usually provides the unmanipulability. Li Pei-Li et al. put forward a manipulable blockchain scheme in ''Research on Fault-correcting Blockchain Technology'', to solve the issue in alliance chains that the error records need to be modified and responded. In ''Identification Scheme Based on Supersingular Isogenies'', Lin Qi-Ping et al. construct an identification scheme based on supersingular isogenies to resist quantum attacks. Consensus mechanism is one of key building blocks in blockchains or in distributed ledger. ''Multi-valued Byzantine Consensus Scheme with High Transmission Efficiency'' by Guo Bing-Yong et al. proposes an improved Byzantine fault tolerant (BFT) protocol. In their improved protocol, each node only broadcasts the Hash digests of messages that it recommended for consensus. After the consensus of Hash list was agreed, the nodes which lack of related message request the missing messages from a majority of nodes which have them, and finally achieve the consensus. Zhang Fan et al. put forward an improved privacy data authentication scheme in ''Privacy Data Authentication Schemes Based on Borromean Ring Signature''. The proposed scheme provides the range proof for the secret amount of transactions to improve the verification efficiency.
        Four research articles on blockchain applications are also included in this special issue. In ''Design of Blockchain for Clearing and Settlement'', Wang Zhi-Peng et al. propose a design approach which could theoretically clear and settle for all the blockchains of open data; put forward a scheme for clearing and settlement. This scheme can back up the data for user chains, and can approximately restore the original transaction records after the user chain collapses. Based on the structure of public chains, ''Fair Multi-party Non-repudiation Protocol Based on Block Chain'' by Yuan Bo-Ao et al. proposes a multi-party non-repudiation protocol without trusted third party (TTP), and proves that the protocol satisfies non-repudiation, fairness, and timeliness through formal analysis. Combining verifiably encrypted signatures (VESs) with aggregated signatures, Gao Ying et al. propose the certificateless aggregate VES scheme (CLAVES) in ''Efficient Multi-party Fair Contract Signing Protocol Based on Blockchains'', give a concrete construction. ''University Score Management System Based on Blockchain Technology'' by Sun Yun-Qiu et al. utilizes the tamper-resistant feature and trusted timestamp of blockchain data to solve the problem of information leakage and manipulating of centrally stored academic grades in universities.
        Compared with other highly developed information technology, blockchain research is still in the preliminary stage. Its systematic stability, application security, business mode, etc. need to be further studied and improved. The purpose of this special issue is to present a comprehensive picture of blockchain technology, we hope that our fellow readers may better understand the blockchains systematically through this special issue, thus to promote the research and application of blockchain technology.

Guest Editor: FENG Deng-Guo, OUYANG Yong-Gui
Reviews in Special Topics
Survey on Security of Blockchain Hot!
SI X M, XU M X, YUAN C
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 458-469. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000256
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Show Abstract ( 46 )

Blockchain is a new type of distributed computing paradigm and is de-trusted. It is a distributed ledger technology (DLT) based on game theory consensus. The emergence of blockchain promotes the transformation of information Internet to value Internet and accelerates the generation of programmable currency, programmable finance and programmable society. The blockchain is bound to have a revolutionary impact on the fields of finance, Internet of Things, credit reporting, etc. In terms of improving production efficiency, reducing production costs, and protecting data security, the blockchain will play an important role. The blockchain will have a positive impact on data security and network security. Meanwhile, the blockchain itself is facing serious security problems, which has attracted extensive attention from researchers. This paper introduces the basic principle of blockchain in modules. Focusing on the algorithm, protocol, application, implementation, and system perspectives, this paper overviews the security problems of the blockchain technology and discusses the essential rationale for them. It mainly analyzes the consensus algorithms in the security of the protocol, the smart contracts in security of implementation, and security issues in digital currency exchanges in practical applications. The defects of existing blockchain security protection measures are analyzed, and the problem of blockchain security is given. Finally, the defects of existing protection measures to blockchain security problems are analyzed, some ideas toward the solutions are given, and the future research directions are clarified.

Research on Mining Attacks in Bitcoin Hot!
HAN J, ZOU J, JIANG H, XU Q L
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 470-483. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000257
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Show Abstract ( 123 )

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008, with the features of decentralization, detrusting, strong robustness and fixed total amount, it has received great attention all over the world. As the most successful cryptocurrency to date, Bitcoin recognizes and records all transactions based on a distributed database of nodes in a P2P network, makes use of PoW to solve the consensus problem and the cryptographic design to ensure the security of currency circulation. With the rising price and increasing number of users, the security of Bitcoin has attracted more attention, such as double spending, transaction malleability, privacy issues. There have been many attacks targeting different aspects of Bitcoin systems, including eclipse attack and routing attacks targeting Bitcoin network, mining attacks targeting consensus mechanism, etc. With the appearance of mining pools, there have been some new attacks targeting the pools. This paper focuses on the attacks targeting mining and mining pools, such as 51% attack, block withholding attack, selfish mining attack, and FAW attack, analyzes the basic idea, basic strategy, and the real threat of the attacks. In addition, some solutions to these attacks are also introduced.

Research Progress on Theory of Blockchains Hot!
SHAN J Y, GAO S
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 484-500. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000258
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Show Abstract ( 146 )

Blockchain is an emerging technology that has received an exceptional amount of attention from all walks of life. Many countries are actively studying how blockchain technology could change finance and even aspects of our lives. In this paper, by introducing the operating mechanism, basic features, key technologies, and technical challenges of the Bitcoin blockchain, we firstly build an intuitive feeling of blockchains for readers. Then we propose a formal definition of blockchains, and summarize the current research progress of blockchains in cryptography, security analysis, consensus, privacy, and scalability. Cryptography is one of the key technologies ensuring security in blockchains, and is also the basic means to realize the specific applications of blockchains. In this paper, we also point out the potential application value of the various cryptographic techniques in blockchains, such as special digital signatures, zero-knowledge proofs, homomorphic ciphers, and secure multi-party computations. Although the research and application of blockchain technology has developed rapidly and made great progress, blockchain technology faces a series of technical challenges such as low throughput, high latency, and high energy consumption, which seriously affects its large-scale applications. Therefore, the research and application of blockchains still has a long way to go, and people need to work together.

Articles in Special Topics
Research on Fault-correcting Blockchain Technology Hot!
LI P L, XU H X, MA T J, MU Y H
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 501-509. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000259
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Show Abstract ( 103 )

In recent years, blockchain technology has received extensive attention from academia and industry. Blockchain has the characteristics of transparency, de-trusting, traceability, and unchangeability, attracting many enterprises to develop blockchain-based applications. The unchangeability of blockchain means that the historical data on the blockchain cannot be changed once it is confirmed. This feature guarantees the reliability and integrity of the historical data on the blockchain. However, the unchangeablility of blockchain is not absolute. In some cases, such as a program loophole in the blockchain application platform, or a historic error not found in time, it is necessary to respond to and change the history of the problem. There is little research work on the blockchain changeability. Accenture applied for a patent about editable blockchain. It mainly uses the Chameleon Hash function. The trapdoor of the Hash function is managed by one node or multiple nodes, thus the edit authority is given to one or more parties. Therefore, the scheme needs to select a changer in advance, or interact with multiple changers to complete the change. This paper designs a new Chameleon Hash function for the alliance chain, so that each node in the alliance chain has the right to modify the history. We propose a blockchain error correction method for multi-party decision making. The blockchain modification does not depend on one party, and does not require multiple parties to complete the change. It only needs to randomly select a node to complete the change, so only a small number of interactions in the whole process is needed.

Identification Scheme Based on Supersingular Isogenies Hot!
LIN Q P, GAO S
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 510-515. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000260
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Show Abstract ( 98 )

This paper presents an identification scheme based on supersingular isogenies. The proposed scheme can be used to construct zero-knowledge proof based on isogenies. Furthermore, it can be used to design post-quantum digital signature schemes and post-quantum block chain cryptography schemes based on isogenies. The proposed scheme is a generalization of De Feo, Jao, and Pl\^{u}t's scheme, and is an interactive zero-knowledge proof scheme. The proposed scheme can use Unruh's construction to transform the interactive zero-knowledge proof into a non-interactive one. Zero-knowledge proof can be used to protect the privacy in block chain. In order to have the post-quantum security zero-knowledge proof, post-quantum cryptography algorithms need to be used. Compared with other post-quantum cryptography algorithms known so far, at the same security level, the cryptography based on isogeny has the shortest public key length and the least communication cost. Thus we try to find the zero-knowledge proof schemes and digital signature schemes based on isogeny. By far, the digital signature schemes based on isogeny all depend on the De Feo, Jao, and Pl\^{u}t's scheme. However, the zero-knowledge proof constructed by De Feo, Jao, and Pl\^{u}t's scheme is noneffective, because it can only validate 1 bit security in each round of the interactive proof. We generalize the De Feo, Jao, and Pl\^{u}t's scheme to get 2 bit security in each round of the interactive proof.

Multi-valued Byzantine Consensus Scheme with High Transmission Efficiency Hot!
GUO B Y, LI X Y
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 516-528. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000261
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Show Abstract ( 87 )

Byzantine protocol has always been an important research topic in the area of distributed computing and has been widely applied to the design of various cryptocurrency systems in recent years. Due to the relatively small application scale, traditional Byzantine protocols focus mainly on the simplification of interaction and the optimization of computation under favorable bandwidth. However, in applications deployed in large-scale network such as cryptocurrency, a mass of participants disperse in different locations, as a result, the timeliness of network delivery can hardly be guaranteed, and the quantity of data transmission tends to be very large, which put forward higher demands on the security and transmission efficiency of Byzantine protocols under weak synchronous even purely asynchronous network. In 2016, Miller et al. presented HoneyBadger BFT: the first practical BFT protocol running in the purely asynchronous network. Though HoneyBadger BFT has obvious advantage in transmission efficiency over other asynchronous Byzantine protocols, in this work, we found that the transmission efficiency of HoneyBadger BFT can be further improved. We present a new approach for consensus: firstly reaching a consensus on the Hash of messages and then requesting the missing messages. By the new approach, we construct a new Byzantine agreement system which reduces unnecessary message transmissions between nodes and thus achieves better transmission efficiency than HoneyBadger BFT.

Privacy Data Authentication Schemes Based on Borromean Ring Signature Hot!
ZHANG F, HUANG N N, GAO S
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 529-537. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000262
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Show Abstract ( 96 )

Privacy protection is a very important issue in the blockchain system. If the amount of value in some transaction is quite large, neither the payer nor the payee of the transaction wishes to disclose it. In order to hide the amount, a direct solution of this privacy protection is to make homomorphic encryption or commitment on the amount of the transaction. However, the hidden amount is not necessarily legal, which means that the amount is not a positive integer or not in certain range (e.g. [0, 248)). Besides, anyone else cannot verify the legitimacy of the amount nor the legitimacy of the transaction. Therefore, it is necessary to attach a proof to prove the legitimacy of the amount in a transaction. The data privacy authentication (range proof) schemes based on the Borromean ring signature is currently used in CT (confidential transaction). The basic idea is to divide the secret amount in a transaction by bits, and generate the public key groups and the ring signature for each bit correspondingly. The final signature is obtained by the use of the Borromean ring signature, and then it is a proof of the range of the amount. This study improves the current scheme. As we take advantage of another known scheme to generate the ring signature for each bit of secret amount, our range proof scheme reduced the time of the proof generation by about 22 percent and the time of the proof verification by about 30 percent while keeping the length of evidence invariant.

Design of Blockchain for Clearing and Settlement Hot!
WANG Z P, WU Q H
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 538-545. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000263
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Show Abstract ( 97 )

Based on blockchain technology, crypto-currency is popular around the world for its convenient payment methods, low transaction fees, transparency and neutral operating mechanism, and high-level security and privacy protection. The cryptocurrency has the advantage that transaction record is publicly verifiable and does not depend on a centralized third party. However, since the blockchain system needs to keep every record of valid transaction, as the transaction record accumulates, a user has to face the problem that the system historical transaction data is increasingly large. On the other hand, if a blockchain crashes because of unforeseen reasons, it is difficult to recover the original transaction data due to the lack of an out-of-chain backup mechanism. In response to these problems, this study designs a blockchain scheme for clearing and settlement. In this scheme, all the user chains can back up the data of their transaction status, and the original transaction record can be roughly restored if the user chain collapses. The scheme also proposes a new idea for the construction of digital currency light wallet, through which the user node can reduce the data storage of the original user chain. In addition, by calculating the relative prices of various digital currencies, the full net price of all digital currencies is realized, providing a value ruler for users to cross-chain transactions. This scheme has a multi-level scalability and a high-level security which is ensured by sufficient computing power.

Fair Multi-party Non-repudiation Protocol Based on Block Chain Hot!
YUAN B A, LIU J, LI G
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 546-555. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000264
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Show Abstract ( 92 )

Multi-party non-repudiation protocol has a wide range of applications, such as multi-party electronic payment and video conferencing. In these applications, the parties involved in the protocol may not trust each other and may even deny the fact of participation, thus multi-party non-repudiation protocol is one of the cryptographic protocols aiming at the problem. To achieve fairness, current multi-party non-repudiation protocols rely on a trusted third party (TTP), and the centralized TTP becomes a bottleneck in protocols' performance. In practice, it is hard to guarantee that the TTP is completely trustworthy, this brings potential security threats to the protocol. In the block chain, all nodes maintain a public chain of block by consensus algorithm, providing the function of decentralized TTP, which helps to solve the performance and security problems caused by a centralized TTP. Based on the public chain of block, this study proposes a multi-party non-repudiation protocol without TTP's participation, and proves by formal analysis that the protocol meets the properties of non-repudiation, fairness, and timeliness. Compared with the classical protocols, the proposed protocol shows a good performance in each aspect.

Efficient Multi-party Fair Contract Signing Protocol Based on Blockchains Hot!
GAO Y, WU J X
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 556-567. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000265
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Show Abstract ( 99 )

With the wide application of digital currency, blockchain as its core support has quickly become the focus of attention. Since the blockchain can act as a decentralized trusted third party (TTP), it is introduced to ensure fairness in the design of  contract signing protocols. However, most of the existing protocols only apply to contract signing between two parties. When they are extended to multi-party contract signing protocols, the participants' workload becomes enormous because every signature needs to be verified. Therefore, designing a simple and efficient multi-party fair contract signing protocol is a key issue for e-commerce. The verifiably encrypted signature (VES) can effectively guarantee the fairness of the transaction process on the Internet and can be naturally used to design contract signing protocols. Aggregate signature can aggregate multiple signatures into one signature, thereby improving the efficiency of verification. Based on certificateless aggregate signature scheme and verifiably signature scheme, this paper proposes a certificateless aggregate verifiably signature scheme (CLAVES). We present a concrete construction of the scheme, and prove its security. Then we use this scheme to design a multi-party fair contract signing protocol based on blockchain. The proposed protocol is divided into two phases. (1) In the off-blockchain phase, the signing party executes the CLAVES scheme and generates their respective CLAVES signatures. If the verification of CLAVES signatures is valid, then protocol enters the on-blockchain phase. Otherwise, the protocol is terminated. (2) In the on-blockchain phase, using the penalty-based fair exchange protocol (claim or refund, COR), the signatories exchange their secret values fairly on the blockchain, and finally, they can extract the ordinary signatures by some computation. Thereby completing the signing of the contract. Through analysis and comparison with the existing multi-party contract signing protocols, the multi-party contract signing protocol proposed in this paper is efficient and fair.

University Score Management System Based on Blockchain Technology Hot!
SUN Y Q, WANG Q C
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2018, 5 (5): 568-578. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000266
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Show Abstract ( 135 )

Grade management is of great significance for university management. It helps schools to better organize, count, and analyze students' learning. Therefore, the authenticity and security of information in the management system is particularly important. Most of the current score management systems use centralized management methods, relying on administrators to manage data through centralized databases such as SQL Server, Oracle, which have the risk about information leakage and tampering. With the rise of blockchain technology, the decentralized and distrusted features have attracted much attention. By using decentralized blockchain technology to proposes a secure and tamper-proof management system for score management. We use P2P network and blockchain to provide a safe and stable operating environment for the system, The students' grades are hashed, and the results of the hash are embedded in a blockchain using the timestamp service OriginStamp's API. The data in the blockchain is managed and monitored by the entire network to prevent illegal tampering and destruction. We provide interactive interfaces for users and the underlying data to complete the uploading, modifying and query functions. The proposed system can effectively provide the authenticity and validity of data in the score management system, and has a significant impact on the management of student information in schools and the formulation of teaching tasks.

Journal of Cryptologic Research
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Journal of Cryptologic Research
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