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2019, 6(3)
HighLights More»   
· An Overview on Cryptography Against Mass Surveillance——LI G, LIU J W, ZHANG Z Y
· Efficient Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search Without Using Secure Channel——LI S Q, YANG B, WANG T, ZHOU Y W.
· Research on Equivalent Class of SIMON-like Cipher Parameters——ZHANG Y, LIU G Q, LI C
· Software vTPM Key Information Protection Scheme Based on Shadow Page Table Plus——TAN L, WANG S, SONG M, SHU H M
· Differential Fault Analysis on Lightweight Block Cipher GIFT——FENT T Y, WEI Y Z, SHI J L, CONG J, ZHENG Y B.
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  Journal of Cryptologic Research--2019, 6 (3)   Published: 26 June 2019
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An Overview on Cryptography Against Mass Surveillance Hot!
LI G, LIU J W, ZHANG Z Y
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 269-282. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000301
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Show Abstract ( 257 )

Events such as PRISM in 2013 showed that there are many new information security threats which are beyond the scope of traditional cryptography. Many existing cryptographic schemes are not secure any longer. Some researchers named these threats as mass-surveillance, and started to study the cryptography against mass surveillance (post-Snowden cryptography). In order to capture the real world better, the cryptography against mass surveillance assumes saboteurs to have stronger power, while there are more limitations on the capability of defenders. The new cryptography is different from traditional cryptography in terms of security model, defense strategy, and analytical framework, and some former assumptions do not hold any longer. This paper overviews the current research status, the main research results, and the most recent development of cryptography against mass surveillance from aspects such as background, security model, cryptographic primitive, encryption, digital signature, cryptographic protocol, defense strategy, etc., and proposes several future research directions.

Articles
Efficient Public Key Encryption with Keyword Search Without Using Secure Channel Hot!
LI S Q, YANG B, WANG T, ZHOU Y W.
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 283-292. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000302
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Show Abstract ( 150 )

In data outsourcing settings, users may encrypt their data before the data is uploaded to the cloud. Searchable encryption (SE) is a recently developed cryptographic primitive that supports keyword search over encrypted data. Among all the SE candidates, public key encryption with keyword search (PEKS) schemes are more powerful than searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) schemes. PEKS supports complicated computation on encrypted data while SSE cannot do it. Classic PEKS assumes a secure channel between users and storage servers to transfer the trapdoor parameters privately. This assumption seems naive in some cases. Baek et al. first suggested a secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme to solve this problem in secure-channel free settings. However, their scheme is proved secure only in the Random Oracle model. This paper proposes an efficient SCF-PEKS scheme constructed in composite-order bilinear groups, and is proved to be secure against chosen keyword attack (IND-SCF-CKA) in the standard model under the decisional subgroup assumption and the DBDH assumption. Compared with other related schemes constructed in the standard model, the proposed scheme has more concise construction, and achieves better security.

Research on Equivalent Class of SIMON-like Cipher Parameters Hot!
ZHANG Y, LIU G Q, LI C
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 293-303. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000303
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Show Abstract ( 82 )
The SIMON lightweight block cipher is designed by National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013. However, no security assessment was conducted by the designers when it was released. To explore the design criterion, at CRYPTO 2015, K\"{o}lbl et al. proposed the concept of affine equivalence of SIMON-like ciphers. By this equivalent relationship, equivalence partition is applied to the parameter space of SIMON-like ciphers. Kolbl's analysis acquires differential and linear characteristics by computer searching. Hereafter, using the same equivalent relationship, Kondo et al. studied the influence of parameters on integral and impossible differential analysis at ACNS 2016. At ISPEC 2016, Zhang et al. analyzed the integral properties of all block size of SIMON-like ciphers. It is known from public literature that, the equivalent subsets can be acquired by computer searching. This study theoretically proves the relationship between the number of equivalent subsets and the block size. Moreover, by partition of parameter space, the equivalent subsets can be represented explicitly, which is beneficial for the assessment of SIMON-like ciphers. The results in this study show that, by finding the affine equivalence, the search space can be reduced from O(n3) to O(n2), which is coincident with the experimental results.
Software vTPM Key Information Protection Scheme Based on Shadow Page Table Plus Hot!
TAN L, WANG S, SONG M, SHU H M
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 304-323. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000304
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Show Abstract ( 90 )

Because of the limit of hardware resources, it is impossible to share the TPM function for all the virtual machines on the trusted virtual platform. Therefore, many of the virtual machines use the emulator to virtualized the TPM, i.e., using the software vTPM to simulate the function of TPM. However, there are many attacks in the virtual machine environment, where it is easy to steal and destroy the keys and certificates which exist in the running space of the vTPM, especially in the full virtualization platform and hardware assisted virtualization platform, the keys of vTPM will be more vulnerable against attacks due to the whole virtual machine being in the user space of VMM, this will seriously affect the security of the virtual machine and vTPM. In this study, a software vTPM key protection scheme based on shadow page table plus is proposed. In this scheme, through a new added shadow page table management module which called MMU-vTPM to protect the keys and certificates in the full virtualization platform or hardware virtualization platform, the MMU-vTPM will prevent other processes to access and damage the memory of the private vTPM keys by monitoring the page table access control. Moreover, in order to prevent the tamper of MMU-vTPM module from the malicious users, the static integrity measurement and dynamic integrity measurement are used to protect the integrity of MMU-vTPM module. At last, an implement of the proposed scheme is given based on the Xen virtualization platform. The test results show that the scheme can ensure the security of the vEK, vSRK, and other secret information of the vTPM, and do not seriously affect the performance.

Differential Fault Analysis on Lightweight Block Cipher GIFT Hot!
FENT T Y, WEI Y Z, SHI J L, CONG J, ZHENG Y B.
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 324-335. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000305
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Differential fault analysis is one of the most powerful attacks to lightweight ciphers, which uses the differences between the fault free states and the fault states to recover the secret keys. Lightweight block cipher GIFT was designed by Subhadeep Banik et al. at CHES 2017. Due to its concise design and efficient implementation, GIFT has attracted extensive attention. So far, many researchers have obtained many attack results about GIFT by using traditional mathematical analyses, such as linear cryptanalysis and differential cryptanalysis. However, the resistance of GIFT against DFA attack appears to be an unsolved problem. In this study, two DFAs on GIFT are proposed by using the structure of round function and the basic idea behind differential fault analysis. More precisely, in the first attack mode, one-bit fault is induced in the states of the 28th round, the 27th round, the 26th round, and the 25th round, respectively. It is shown that the attack requires 192 fault ciphertexts on average and the entire secret keys can be recovered. In the second attack mode, one-bit fault is also induced in the states of the 26th round, the 25th round, the 24th round, and the 23rd round, respectively. It is shown that the attack only requires 32 fault ciphertexts on average. The results show that the attacks proposed in this study are effective in breaking GIFT without any protection.

HBcipher: An Efficient Lightweight Block Cipher Hot!
LI L, GUO Y, LIU B T, OU Y
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 336-352. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000306
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Show Abstract ( 149 )

With the popularity of IoT applications, it has a great significance to design efficient and lightweight block ciphers to ensure the information security for the resource-constrained devices. This study designs a high-efficiency lightweight block cipher named HBcipher. Its block length is 64 bits and it supports key lengths of 64 bits and 128 bits. The round function of HBcipher adopts three sets of F-functions of SPN structure, and constructs a new P2 permutation by using geometric mapping properties when designing the F-function, which effectively hides the statistical characteristics of plaintext and improves the ability of anti-statistical analysis. In order to avoid completely exposing the last round to the attacker, a whitening key module is added after the last round of P2 permutation output. Meanwhile, a dynamic AddRoundKey operation is designed. The encrypted data dynamically selects the updated subkey according to the parity of the algorithm's control signal. Compared with the general static AddRoundKey, the algorithm improves the flexibility, security, and especially the ability of resisting the self-similar attack. The experimental results show that the HBcipher algorithm has nice avalanche effect and randomization characteristics, and its software implementation performance is superior to the PRESENT which is optimized for hardware implementation. Compared with the RECTANGLE which is optimized for software implementation, the hardware implementation area of HBcipher is smaller. Security analyses shows that the HBcipher algorithm has the ability to resist the currently known attacks such as differential and linear.

New Construction of Disjoint Linear Codes Hot!
DONG X W, SUN Y J
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 353-361. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000307
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Show Abstract ( 78 )

Disjoint linear codes play an important role in the construction of multiple output resilient cryptographic functions with high nonlinearity. How to generate a large number of disjoint linear codes quickly and effectively is an important research topic. In this paper, a new construction of disjoint linear codes is presented. It can generate a set of disjoint [n, k] linear codes with currently best known cardinality. The computational cost of this construction is much smaller than that of other known constructions, especially when n ≫ k. When n is a multiple of k, it gets v matrices Mi of order k × k by means of only one primitive polynomial of k, where v = 2k−1, i = 0, 1, · · · , v−1. Combining such Mi with identity matrix of order k × k and null matrix of order k × k, all the disjoint [n, k] linear codes can be generated. When n is not a multiple of k, it gets v1 matrices Mi of order k × k by means of one primitive  polynomial  of  k and  v2  matrices  Mj′  of  order  k × m by  means  of  one  primitive  polynomial of m, where m = n−uk, v1 = 2k−1, v2 = 2m−1, i = 0, 1, · · · , v1−1, j = 0, 1, · · · , v2−1, u = ⌊n/k⌋−1. Combining with such Mi, Mj′, identity matrix of order k × k, null matrix of k × k and null matrix of order k × m, a large number of [n, k] disjoint linear codes can be generated, and the number of the generated disjoint [n, k] linear codes is 2m−k-1 less than ⌊(2n-1)/(2k-1)⌋ .

Obfuscatability of Quantum Access Control Problem Hot!
CHEN R Y L, SHANG T, LIU J W
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 362-269. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000308
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Show Abstract ( 77 )

Obfuscation is a concept of functionality encryption conceived from the concept of data encryption. It is known that, the most strong obfuscation of classic program, the so-called general blackbox obfuscation, is proved to be nonexistent by Barak in 2001. It has shown in recent years that, some weaker obfuscations still work efficiently on some specific functions. Meanwhile, quantum communication and quantum computing have made great progress in this century. However, academic research on the theory of quantum obfuscation is still at a blank stage. This study combines the two leading disciplines of quantum theory and obfuscation theory and develops the theory of quantum obfuscation. We first define quantum point functions and prove that the quantum point functions are obfuscatable under quantum-accessible random oracle model. Subsequently, we define quantum access control problems and auxiliary problems to avoid exponential hardness. We prove the obfuscatability of quantum access control problems. Finally, we present the future valuable research directions of quantum obfuscation theory, including quantum black box obfuscator's realization, quantum obfuscation for classical circuits, non-reusable quantum obfuscation, and removing quantum random oracles.

Improved Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks on Round-reduced Crypton-256 Hot!
HAO Y L, TIAN C L, YUAN Q
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 370-382. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000309
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Show Abstract ( 76 )

The meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack has been proved to be a highly efficient key- recovery method and has been applied to almost all kinds of block ciphers, especially the AES. The current best known key-recovery result on AES-256 uses exactly this method and has mounted to 10 rounds. The  data/time/memory  complexities  are  2111/2253/2211.2  respectively.  The  Crypton  block cipher shares many structural similarities with AES. However, the security of Crypton has not been thoroughly studied as that of AES. This work studies the security of Crypton against the MITM attacks, and gives MITM attacks on Crypton-256 reduced to 9 and 10 rounds.  The 9-round result improves   the previous results by lowering the time complexity, and the 10-round attacks are the best (veriable) key-recovery results known so far. One of the 10-round attack in this study has data/time/memory complexities 2113/2245.05/2209.59 respectively. As can be seen, the time and memory complexities of the 10-round attack against Crypton-256 are lower  than those of AES-256,  indicating that the resistance   of Crypton-256 against MITM may not be as good as that of AES-256.

Side-channel Attack Against Real RFID Tags Hot!
DAI L, DONG G F, HU H G, YU N H
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2019, 6 (3): 383-394. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000310
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Show Abstract ( 128 )

With the theory of side channel analysis being developed continuously, it poses an increasingly serious threat to small crypto devices such as RFID tags with security backwardness. In order to protect data security, many RFID tags are able to encrypt communication data, but most of them are still lack of enough side channel resistance measures. In order to study the difficulties and the actual attack effects when applying the side channel analysis theory to attack real RFID tags, a programmable RFID tag (TB-WISP 5.0) which has broad application prospects is selected for the side channel attack in this study. The attack started from a chosen-plaintext attack in the simple mutual authentication protocol, power and electromagnetic traces of the AES encryption are acquired by the way of non-trigger signal and non-invasive acquisition, and with the two kinds of traces, complete secret key can be successfully recovered under the guide of the side channel analysis theory. The results fully proved the urgency and necessity to improve the side channel resistance design on small crypto devices at present. And some suggestions are given for the design of side channel resistance measures on the programmable RFID tags which require low power consumption, light weight, and quick calculation.

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