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2017, 4(2)
HighLights More»   
· A Note on Vectorial Bent Functions in Binomial Forms——HUANG D M, TANG C M.
· Analysis of a New CCA-secure Public-key Cryptosystem——WANG X, XUE R
· A Multidimensional Data Aggregation Scheme in Multilevel Network in Smart Grid——ZHOU H, CHEN J, ZHANG Y Y, DANG L J
· Reconstructing Truncated Sequences Derived from Primitive Sequences over Integer Residue Rings——YANG J B, ZHU X Y
· Verifiable Outsourcing Attribute-based Signature Scheme——HAN Y L, CHEN F, CHEN X Y
Current Issue Accepted Earlier Issues Top Read Top Downloaded Top Cited
  Journal of Cryptologic Research--2017, 4 (2)   Published: 29 April 2017
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Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 0-0.
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A Note on Vectorial Bent Functions in Binomial Forms Hot!
HUANG D M, TANG C M.
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 99-105. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000166
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Bent functions as an interesting class of combinatorial tools have many applications in cryptography, coding theory, sequences, and combinatorics. They can be used in constructing S-boxes, cryptographic protocols, linear codes, sequences, and difference sets. The characterization and construction of bent functions are hot research topics. Vectorial bent functions are a class of generalization of bent functions and have extensive connections with bent functions. Vectorial bent functions can be characterized and constructed from bent functions. Ribic et al. presented the characterization of vectorial bent functions with Dillon exponents, proved that some monomial trace functions are not vectorial bent functions, gave some necessary conditions for binomial vectorial functions to be bent, and conjectured that some binomial Dillon functions cannot be bent. This paper studies binomial trace functions and uses properties of vectorial bent functions to solve Ribic et al.’s conjecture: when m is larger than or equal to 4, their binomial trace functions cannot be bent.

Analysis of a New CCA-secure Public-key Cryptosystem Hot!
WANG X, XUE R
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 106-113. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000167
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CCA-secure public key encryption has attracted much attention in modern cryptography. It is a hot topic in public key cryptography to design a secure scheme with provable security, especially security against CCA under some reasonable assumptions. So far, the security of widely convincing CCA-secure public key encryption schemes are based on some mathematical problems which have been studied for a long time and are universally believed to be computationally hard by mathematicians and cryptographers. Gong et al. proposed a new public key cryptosystem. It was claimed and proved that the proposed encryption scheme provides indistinguishable encryption under adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack in the standard model. A novel security assumption was presented, namely, to compute the sixth root modulo a composite number is difficult, even when an adversary is able to factor a special RSA-type modulus. In this paper we point out the flaws exposed in the scheme and naturally show some succinct attacks, which can be efficiently accomplished in polynomial time. We demonstrate that the security assumption in the paper does not hold. Then we prove that the encryption scheme is not secure in the sense of IND-CPA, not mentioning IND-CCA2. We also point out the mistakes in the proof of the claims in Gong’s paper. Eventually, we discuss the general idea to construct a CCA-secure public key encryption cryptosystem.

A Multidimensional Data Aggregation Scheme in Multilevel Network in Smart Grid Hot!
ZHOU H, CHEN J, ZHANG Y Y, DANG L J
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 114-132. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000168
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In order to transmit user’s electricity assumption information in a secure and efficient way in smart grids, this paper proposes a multidimensional data aggregation scheme in multilevel network in smart grids. This scheme achieves the combination of multilevel network and multidimensional data at the same time and improves the practical performance. In this scheme, we combine Paillier homomorphic encryption with blinding factor to encrypt users’ multidimensional data, so that even if an attacker obtains the decryption key, he cannot decrypt single user’s ciphertext. This embodies the essence of data aggregation. We also design a digital signature scheme which can use forgery-resisting efficient batch verification. Such batch verification reduces the number of paring operations to a constant. Meanwhile, this scheme also supports fault tolerance and for invalid signatures search. Fault tolerance makes the other users’ data aggregation unaffected even if some smart meters are out of action. Invalid signatures search can quickly find the users who sent invalid signatures when batch verification fails. In addition, we give two extensions of our scheme, one is that our scheme can be used to compute a fixed user’s time-of-use electricity bill and the other is that our scheme is able to effectively and quickly deal with the dynamic user situation for joining and exiting. Through security analysis and performance analysis, we prove that our scheme can achieve confidentiality, decryption security, integrity, unforgeability and batch verification security and makes significant improvements in computation and communication overheads.

Reconstructing Truncated Sequences Derived from Primitive Sequences over Integer Residue Rings Hot!
YANG J B, ZHU X Y
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 133-150. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000169
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As a very important pseudorandom sequences, linear recurring sequences over integer residue rings is widely used in cryptology. The common application form is to obtain a truncated sequences by truncating some bits of a linear recurring sequences over integer residue rings. Recovering original sequences over integer residue rings from its truncated sequences is an important research topic in the area of safety evaluation. Let m be a square-free odd integer, and let f(x) be a primitive polynomial of degree n over Z/(m), and let  be a primitive sequence generated by f(x). In this paper, we study how to recover the original sequence  from its l least significant bits. This problem is reduced to the lattice closest vector problem. We prove that the original sequence can be uniquely reconstructed by d elements of its l least significant bits with the probability at least 1-1/m if   and The above result is obtained under the assumption that one can access to an oracle for the lattice closest vector problem for the infinity norm. The correctness of the above reconstruction has been validated in experiment, by recovering the primitive sequences of order 16 over Z/(231-1) of the ZUC algorithm from its 6 least significant bits with about 100 elements. Moreover, we have successfully reconstructed the primitive sequences for 54 times by about 150 elements of its given 5 least significant bits in 100 experiments. As for the situation of sequences with 2 least significant bits, the original primitive sequences over Z/(231-1) and Z/(232-1)  can be successfully reconstructed when the degree n of the primitive polynomial is less than 4.

Verifiable Outsourcing Attribute-based Signature Scheme Hot!
HAN Y L, CHEN F, CHEN X Y
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 151-164. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000170
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Attribute-based signatures (ABS) with outsourcing verification not only enables achieved existential unforgeability of the original message, but also preserves the privacy of signer’s identity by anonymous authentication; it also overcomes the efficiency drawback of a normal ABS. However, the cloud server has the opportunity to send a wrong or maliciously outsourced computing output, which may cause the verification of a legal signature to be illegal, because the existing OAV-ABS schemes have no mechanism to check the correctness of the outsourced computing output. To solve this problem, we combine ABS and outsourced computing of bilinear maps, present an outsourcing verification of attribute-based signature scheme. In the scheme, Two servers are used to accomplish outsourced computing and different servers are set appropriate calculation parameters, the paring evaluation is outsourced to two cloud servers, verifier achieves correctness testing by small amount of computation and comparison after receiving the result of different servers, and the verifier only needs to perform the exponent and multiplication computing to fulfill the verification. The scheme succeeds the advantage of efficient verification of the existing ABS schemes and could detect the error of calculation result with 100% probability. It supports the LSSS and has great ability of expression. Its existential unforgeability under selective attribute set and adaptive chosen message attack is proven in standard model under the computational Diffie-Hellman Exponent problem assumption. It could be applied in mobile devices with limited processing capacity but sufficient storage space.

Multi-identity-based Fully Homomorphic Encryption from Obfuscation Hot!
WANG W L, HU B
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 165-175. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000171
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Fully homomorphic encryption allows us to evaluate any operation on encrypted data without decryption, so it is an attractive research topic in the context of big data and cloud security. However, the existing schemes are faced with challenges like large size of public key or low computation efficiency. Identity-based fully homomorphic encryption is an emerging public key cryptosystem in recent years. The system can do homomorphic operations, as well as effectively manage public keys. So such cryptosystem has broad application prospects. In CRYPTO 2013, Gentry, Sahai and Waters presented the first real identity-based fully homomorphic encryption scheme, which only works in the single-identity setting. Multi-identity IBFHE is more practical than single-identity IBFHE. In this paper, we propose a conversion algorithm of identities based on indistinguishable obfuscation and punctured pseudorandom functions. Based on this algorithm, we present a multi-identity IBFHE scheme, which is selectively secure under the hardness of LWE in the standard model. Moreover, the scheme supports cipher operation in different identities, and can carry out multiple homomorphic operations. Compared with the previous schemes, our multi-identity based fully homomorphic encryption scheme is of better efficiency, simpler operation, more functionalities and wider applications.

Bitcoin and Digital Fiat Currency Hot!
QIN B, CHEN L C H, WU Q H, ZHANG Y F, ZHONG L, ZHENG H B
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 176-186. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000172
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The emergence and circulation of Bitcoin, an open cryptocurrency, indicates that the Internet characterized by information generation and mobility is entering a new era of Internet of values, featured with value generation and transfer. This paper first surveys the development and architecture of Bitcoin, discusses the technical advantages in point-to-point payment achieving public verifiability and safe transaction based on modern cryptographic technologies in the absence of trust, mediation and centralized authority, and explores the impact of Bitcoin on fiat currencies. By analyzing the research and application of Bitcoin, this paper identifies its deficiencies of resource waste, poor scalability, low throughput, long transaction latency, unresolved security, privacy leakage risk, tool for extortion and money laundering free from governmental audit and supervision and so on. Finally, oriented by digital fiat currency, by incorporating the advantages of Bitcoin like cryptocurrencies and innovating the modern cryptography theory and technology, this paper discusses the technical challenges in developing digital fiat currency, consisting of reconciling the convenience demand and the safety requirement, balancing between the privacy protection, financial intelligence confidentiality needs, and audit, supervision, forensics of monetary crimes, so as to ensure the effective operation and transmission of the monetary policies, and the statutory control of monetary sovereignty.

A Privacy Preserving Fair Contract Signing Protocol based on Block Chains Hot!
TIAN H B, HE J J, FU L Q
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 187-198. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000173
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Fair Contract signing is always an important cryptographic service for electronic commerce. Current technique practices need an online or offline centralized trusted third party (TTP) to solve disputes appeared in a contract singing process. However, a centralized TTP has high risks. It may suffer the single point of failure, inside or outside attacks. The block chain, as a basic technique of Bitcoin and many other digital currencies, gives us a decentralized TTP, which could avoid many problems of a centralized one and may achieve the ideal goal of a global TTP. However, the contradiction should be considered between the public verification property of a block chain and the privacy protection requirement of a security protocol when we design such protocols based on block chains. A security protocol based on a block chain means that the protocol needs to fulfill its security goals through some transactions of the block chain. But the transactions are public. Every node of the block chain could read the transactions and verify the correctness of these transactions. If the transaction data involves privacy contents, a contradiction appears. Especially, for a fair contract signing protocol, the signers, contents and signatures of a contract may involve sensitive information and are not intended to be public. So it is hard to design a privacy preserving fair contract signing protocol based on block chains. This paper makes use of a blinded verifiable encrypted signature (VES) scheme based on traditional VES and the idea of blind signature. The new scheme could solve the privacy protection problem in the application scenario of fair contract signing. We give a fair and secret contract signing protocol based on the new scheme, which allows contract signers fulfill the task of fair contract signing based on public chains, and protects the privacy contents related to the contract.

The Design of an Anti-Counterfeiting System Based on Blockchain Hot!
AN R, HE D B, ZHANG Y R, LI L
Journal of Cryptologic Research. 2017, 4 (2): 199-208. ;  doi: 10.13868/j.cnki.jcr.000174
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Show Abstract ( 102 )

With the rapid development of the national economy and the continuous improvement of people’s living standard, the increasing number of fake and shoddy products have caused great damage to the market economy and effects the national quality. Thus, anti-counterfeiting techniques, as a solution to the problem, has attracted wide attention. The QR codes, which are the most widely used security techniques, are so easy to forge. To promote the healthy development of the market economy, effective Anti-counterfeiting techniques are urgently needed to prevent the current sabotages. The blockchain technology possess varieties of properties such as the perfect characteristics of openness, de-centralization, autonomy and non-tampering, etc. It shows natural advantages to do anti-counterfeiting stuffs. IC card chip has a large storage capacity, high security and easy to use. Combine the blockchain technique with IC card chips, a new safety security system is designed in this paper. The specific implementation details are described in this paper. The result shows that the system has high unforgeability, low cost and easy implementation because of the high security of blockchain technique and IC card chip, having fairly good competitiveness. Owning to the limited applications of blockchain technique, this system as an implemented one gives a technical reference to the application of blockchain and the current anti-counterfeiting market.

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